Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Basic Functions of a Network Management System.

C H A P T E R 6 Chapter Goal †¢ Become familiar with the basic functions of a network management system. Network Management Basics Introduction This chapter describes functions common to most network-management architectures and protocols. It also presents the five conceptual areas of management as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Subsequent chapters in Part IX, â€Å"Network Management,† address specific network management technologies, protocols, and platforms in more detail. What Is Network Management?Network management means different things to different people. In some cases, it involves a solitary network consultant monitoring network activity with an outdated protocol analyzer. In other cases, network management involves a distributed database, autopolling of network devices, and high-end workstations generating real-time graphical views of network topology changes and traffic. In general, network management is a service that emp loys a variety of tools, applications, and devices to assist human network managers in monitoring and maintaining networks. A Historical PerspectiveThe early 1980s saw tremendous expansion in the area of network deployment. As companies realized the cost benefits and productivity gains created by network technology, they began to add networks and expand existing networks almost as rapidly as new network technologies and products were introduced. By the mid-1980s, certain companies were experiencing growing pains from deploying many different (and sometimes incompatible) network technologies. The problems associated with network expansion affect both day-to-day network operation management and strategic network growth planning.Each new network technology requires its own set of experts. In the early 1980s, the staffing requirements alone for managing large, heterogeneous networks created a crisis for many organizations. An urgent need arose for automated network management (including what is typically called network capacity planning) integrated across diverse environments. Internetworking Technologies Handbook 1-58705-001-3 6-1 Chapter 6 Network Management Architecture Network Management Basics Network Management Architecture Most network management architectures use the same basic structure and set of relationships.End stations (managed devices), such as computer systems and other network devices, run software that enables them to send alerts when they recognize problems (for example, when one or more user-determined thresholds are exceeded). Upon receiving these alerts, management entities are programmed to react by executing one, several, or a group of actions, including operator notification, event logging, system shutdown, and automatic attempts at system repair. Management entities also can poll end stations to check the values of certain variables.Polling can be automatic or user-initiated, but agents in the managed devices respond to all polls. Agents are software modules that first compile information about the managed devices in which they reside, then store this information in a management database, and finally provide it (proactively or reactively) to management entities within network management systems (NMSs) via a network management protocol. Well-known network management protocols include the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).Management proxies are entities that provide management information on behalf of other entities. Figure 6-1 depicts a typical network management architecture. Figure 6-1 A Typical Network Management Architecture Maintains Many Relationships Network management system (NMS) Management entity Network management protocol Network Agent Agent Agent Proxy Management database Management database Management database Managed devices ISO Network Management Model The ISO has contributed a great deal to network standardization.Its network management model is the primary means for understanding the major functions of network management systems. This model consists of five conceptual areas, as discussed in the next sections. Internetworking Technologies Handbook 6-2 1-58705-001-3 Chapter 6 Network Management Basics ISO Network Management Model Performance Management The goal of performance management is to measure and make available various aspects of network performance so that internetwork performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.Examples of performance variables that might be provided include network throughput, user response times, and line utilization. Performance management involves three main steps. First, performance data is gathered on variables of interest to network administrators. Second, the data is analyzed to determine normal (baseline) levels. Finally, appropriate performance thresholds are determined for each important variable so that exceeding these thresholds indicates a network problem worthy of attenti on. Management entities continually monitor performance variables.When a performance threshold is exceeded, an alert is generated and sent to the network management system. Each of the steps just described is part of the process to set up a reactive system. When performance becomes unacceptable because of an exceeded user-defined threshold, the system reacts by sending a message. Performance management also permits proactive methods: For example, network simulation can be used to project how network growth will affect performance metrics. Such simulation can alert administrators to impending problems so that counteractive measures can be taken.Configuration Management The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. Each network device has a variety of version information associated with it. An engineering workstati on, for example, may be configured as follows: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Operating system, Version 3. 2 Ethernet interface, Version 5. 4 TCP/IP software, Version 2. 0 NetWare software, Version 4. 1 NFS software, Version 5. 1 Serial communications controller, Version 1. X. 25 software, Version 1. 0 SNMP software, Version 3. 1 Configuration management subsystems store this information in a database for easy access. When a problem occurs, this database can be searched for clues that may help solve the problem. Accounting Management The goal of accounting management is to measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group uses on the network can be regulated appropriately. Such regulation minimizes network problems (because network resources can be apportioned based on resource capacities) and maximizes the fairness of network access across all users.Internetworking Technologies Handbook 1-58705-001-3 6-3 Chapter 6 Review Questions N etwork Management Basics As with performance management, the first step toward appropriate accounting management is to measure utilization of all important network resources. Analysis of the results provides insight into current usage patterns, and usage quotas can be set at this point. Some correction, of course, will be required to reach optimal access practices. From this point, ongoing measurement of resource use can yield billing information as well as information used to assess continued fair and optimal resource utilization.Fault Management The goal of fault management is to detect, log, notify users of, and (to the extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Because faults can cause downtime or unacceptable network degradation, fault management is perhaps the most widely implemented of the ISO network management elements. Fault management involves first determining symptoms and isolating the problem. Then the problem is fixed and the solution is tested on all-important subsystems.Finally, the detection and resolution of the problem is recorded. Security Management The goal of security management is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally) and sensitive information cannot be accessed by those without appropriate authorization. A security management subsystem, for example, can monitor users logging on to a network resource and can refuse access to those who enter inappropriate access codes.Security management subsystems work by partitioning network resources into authorized and unauthorized areas. For some users, access to any network resource is inappropriate, mostly because such users are usually company outsiders. For other (internal) network users, access to information originating from a particular department is inappropriate. Access to Human Resource files, for example, is inappropriate for most use rs outside the Human Resources department. Security management subsystems perform several functions.They identify sensitive network resources (including systems, files, and other entities) and determine mappings between sensitive network resources and user sets. They also monitor access points to sensitive network resources and log inappropriate access to sensitive network resources. Review Questions Q—Name the different areas of network management. A—Configuration, accounting, fault, security, and performance. Q—What are the goals of performance management? A—Measure and make available various aspects of network performance so that internetwork performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.Q—What are the goals of configuration management? A—Monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. Q—What are th e goals of accounting management? Internetworking Technologies Handbook 6-4 1-58705-001-3 Chapter 6 Network Management Basics Review Questions A—Measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group uses on the network can be regulated appropriately. Q—What are the goals of fault management?A—Detect, log, notify users of, and automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Q—What are the goals of security management? A—Control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged and so that sensitive information cannot be accessed by those without appropriate authorization. Internetworking Technologies Handbook 1-58705-001-3 6-5 Chapter 6 Review Questions Network Management Basics Internetworking Technologies Handbook 6-6 1-58705-001-3

Rene Descartes Essay

It is a well-established fact in various literatures in philosophy that Rene Descartes pioneered the modern philosophy tradition. He was the first one who veered away from philosophic tradition that uses Christian faith as the backbone of philosophizing such that of the minds of the medieval philosophers. Rene Descartes’ main philosophical thesis is derived from his famous approach of methodological skepticism or metaphysical doubt. In this regard, he seeks to arrive at a set of principles that will then lead him to prove the truth without generating any doubt. According to his thesis, those things that can be doubted should not be considered as genuine knowledge. Consequently those that cannot be doubted in any respect can be the foundation of genuine knowledge. There is a single principle that he uses as the foundation of his philosophy namely the thought exists. Given that a thought cannot be separated from a any person who thinks, then, the thinking person exists. It is in this simplistic manner that we can come to know and, hence, verify our existence. If a person doubts his existence and, since, nobody can deny the fact that doubting is just another act of thinking, then (by so doing the doubting), the person is in a way asserting his own existence. The very act of doubting your own existence is a proof that you exist. The nature of mind in his writings can be seen to have a distinct function which is to think. It is an indivisible, non-extended thing. But to better understand his propositions in reference to the mind, we must take into account his proposed mind and body problem. The non-thinking thing, he states, is the body. It is a divisible, extended thing and a material substance that suggests spatial extendedness. The mind and body can so exist independently of each other and while any person can doubt of his own body, he can never doubt his own mind – the thinking thing. It is through apprehension of the necessary existence which is embodied in the clear and distinct idea of the supremely perfect being that we can so acquire knowledge of God. He holds his view that the necessary existence cannot be disconnected to the essence of the supremely perfect being (God) without any form of contradiction. Moreover, the existence of God is indeed conspicuous and self-evident according to his thesis. The cause that contains much of a reality that the object of the idea has is God. The God put the idea of something that exists clearly and distinctly in our minds. The idea of something draws its reality from the cause. God’s existence is, for Descartes, the most basic mathematical truth. For any person to arrive at genuine knowledge, one has to know the distinction between impulses that lead one to believe and insights to necessary truths. The former implies that it cannot be doubted whereas the latter cannot be doubted at all. The latter are the principles in our minds by which we acquire knowledge. We must also consider where the errors are coming from in our epistemological pursuit. God, according to him, can never lead people to deception and if only people will use their abilities that they received from God, there will be no chance for any faults. But since people do not easily stay in the narrow realm of truth because of the clashing interests of the will and intellect, people fail to recognize sound judgments. Senses should not be relied upon (in searching for a genuine knowledge); for they only serve confused notions of matter. Sense perceptions are the results of the body’s influence in the mind not from the mind’s apprehension of the necessary characteristics of matters. Rene Descartes believes that people obtain knowledge through the apprehension of the necessary attributes of beings. The physical world, for Descartes, should be visualized as a complicated machine but not in the manner of using our bodily perceptions; rather by the way it is cognized in mathematical terms. The idea that philosophy should have an exact method like that of the natural science of first came from Franz Brentano. Franz Brentano is known because of his works in philosophy of psychology and his reintroduction of the concept of intentionality. Unlike Rene Descartes, Brentano does not use the idea of God in his philosophy and his explanations concerning his theses. Intentionality, according to his writings, can be summed up into the relationship of mental phenomena (consciousness) and the physical phenomena, that is, every single mental phenomena or any psychological act has content and is directed towards an object (intentional object). To signify the status of the object of thoughts in the mind, Franz Brentano uses the term â€Å"intentional inexistence†. The mental phenomenon has the capacity to be intentional, thus it can have an intentional object that the physical phenomenon does not have the ability of generating of. Physical phenomenon is deficit of the ability of generating original intentions but can assist in the progress of intentional relationship in a second-hand manner called derived intentionality. On the other hand, Franz Brentano states that a mental phenomenon is not dependent on the actual existence of an object to be able to form a quasi-relation to it. It should be noted that a thing that does not exist literally in the physical world can be an intentional object of a mental phenomenon. There are criteria to differentiate mental phenomena from physical phenomena. The three most important among those are (1) the exclusive object of inner perception is the mental phenomena, (2) mental phenomena appear as unity and (3) they are directed to an object with a certain degree of intentionality. Mental acts do not necessary have duration. When we are directed towards an object, the object does not vanish from our consciousness for it remains present but just in an altered state. On the contrary, this is not about the act of remembering per se but rather a kind of memory that keeps â€Å"what had been experienced† lively. In the epistemological sense, Franz Brentano states that all knowledge should be from direct experiences that entails the use of first person pronoun, â€Å"I†. However, this should not be confused in the idea that Brentano is upholding the standard of empirical science nowadays. He is introducing here another of approach of performing psychology from an empirical standpoint. This means that those things that one directly experiences in inner perception must be described using the first-person point of view. This then inaugurates another brand of empiricism. Resembling the idea of Descartes, Brentano maintains the idea that perception is erroneous and it could not lead us to de facto existence of the perceived world which could be just an illusion. Moreover, he believes that we can find absolute certainty in our inner perception. Just like the problem that we can see in Descartes disapproval of the use of bodily senses in approaching knowledge, we cannot deem Brentano’s ideas compatible to the tenets of natural science and its course of experimentations. Reality for Franz Brentano does not reside on the perceived world. As what has been mentioned above, the perceived world can only be an illusion and to properly combat this possible error in our judgment (if we only rely on our senses), we must put in higher regard our introspection of our inner perception. Following Franz Brentano’s concept of intentionality, Edmund Husserl has formulated another version of the study of the structure of consciousness and its corresponding acts. There is a remarkably similar ideas perpetuating from Brentano’s ideas to that of Husserl notion of the consciousness or the mind. The consciousness acts intentionally toward an intentional object. Consciousness then is always directed toward something, whatever that something is. But then again, the concepts that these two philosophers individually present do not resemble each others in all aspects. Edmund Husserl proposes that there is a need in pointing out the differences between the act of consciousness and the phenomena at which the act is intentionally directed. We must know the object-in-itself, transcendent to consciousness. Phenomenology does not displace the notion that objects are indeed real but it puts these objects under the method of â€Å"bracketing† just so to regard the object as it is and not merely that of the object’s features. It also seeks to pinpoint the constant features that define how objects are perceived. In a phenomenological standpoint, the object is not regarded based on its external features, it is not its â€Å"aboutness† that is being scrutinized, it is the object-in-itself. It is not, therefore, in the business of phenomenology to assume the existence of anything. It is a discipline that means to describe the things in themselves. Edmund Husserl gives a little significance to the perennial metaphysical problem of setting up the whole foundation of material reality of what we constantly perceive. The task of a philosopher, for him, is to look at essences of things. The knowledge of essences can only be attained by not letting the assumptions of an external world interfere in epistemological pursuit. This is â€Å"bracketing† that is entailed in the procedure called epoche. It is through constant act of varying the object in our imagination that we can then arrive at the essences of that object. Husserl’s notion of natural standpoint is marked by a certain belief that there are objects that materially exist and that their properties and characteristics are exhibited by them that we then perceive. He declares that mental and spiritual (mind) realities are not the same. These two different concepts are independent of any kind of physical evidences. The above paragraph implies that the natural science, in Husserl’s philosophy, is also in a problematic seat just like the problem we see in Descartes and Brentano’s philosophy. The true knowledge is not attainable in the realm of empirical observation however there is rationality involved. The â€Å"brand† of reality that these three philosophers advertise is the reality that we cannot grasp in the physical world. Reality does not have a place in the realm of the senses.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Avenida Ninos Heroes

â€Å"Avenida Ninos Heroes† and â€Å"Halls of Montezuma† both pay tribute to the US – Mexico War. Provide a context for each and what they commemorate. During the battle aimed to capture the fortress in Chapultepec Castle, six brave cadets effused to surrender upon the retreat order of General Bravo against the US Forces. These were Juan de la Barrera (lieutenant), Agustin Melgar, Juan Escutia, Vicente Suarez, Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca.After the fall his five comrades, Cadet Juan Ecuita wrapped himself with the Mexican flag and jumped off the castle. The US commander in charge paid an honorable salute to the bravery and patriotism portrayed by the soldier. Now, a mural was decorated on the ceiling of the castle showing the patriotism of the six soldiers particularly Ecuita and the Mexican flag, there is also a monument in Chapultepec Park honoring their valor. These cadets are more popularly known in the Mexican history as the as the Los Ninos Heroes or Heroic Cadets.In September 1847, under the command of Army General Winfield Scott, Army Brig. Gen. John Quitman led a pack of 120 handpicked Marines in a historical battle to subdue the Hill of Chapultepec. The Hill of Chapultepec, more popularly referred to as the Halls of Montezuma stood 200 feet high surrounded by a 12-foot wall. The fortress was defended by a total of 400 men, 300 of which were from the Batallon de San Blas under Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicotencatl, and roughly 100 more garrison soldiers and the cadets.It took one hour and a half, to suppress the resistance and the American flag fund it way waving up the hill as a sign of victory. Ninety percent of the Marines died in this conquest. And to pay tribute to this distinct heroism, the opening lyrics of the official US Marine’s Hymn, â€Å"†¦. the Halls of Montezuma† was referred her as the Chapultepec Castle. Moreover, the corps included a blood stripe in their blue dress uniform. 2. What is chattel slavery and how was it institutionalized in the British North American colonies?Chattel slavery is the most common type of slavery in the American history. It is characterized by the master’s provision of property and money towards the slave in exchange for service like all sorts of labor and oftentimes sexual servitude. Basically, this social status is inherited to the next cohort, that is, the later generations are expected to do the same, either sold to another master or to serve under the same owner. The history of slavery in America started in 1619 upon the arrival of the Dutch ship, the White Lion in Virginia.It transported African slaves to several British colonies in America. Aside from that it also brought with it indentured servants. Indentured servitude is a form of debt bondage, in this case, in exchange fro the transport of these people across the Atlantic to America, food, clothing, food and other basic necessities; they are to serve a certain em ployer after a period of time usually after 4 to 7 years. The first law enacted towards slavery and established the legality of English slavery in the Caribbean was the Barbadian Slave Code of 1661.Almost 20 years later, South Carolina instituted that a slave is a property, meaning a slave being owned by an individual or group of individual therefore cannot sold from the estate. In 1696t the Barbadian Code was adapted in South Carolina, hence defining the basic guideline for slavery in North America. During this adaptation, the African became chattel slaves from being indentured slaves, giving the enslaver complete ownership of a person.Moreover, in Virginia, government made its own laws against the growing indentured slaves, since some slaves became wealthy farm owners after they are released from servitude. The Virginian Laws, provided that Africans are to be slaves for life and the same status are to be applied to their future progeny. 3. The embryonic federal republic of North A merica was quickly forced to grapple with issues related to citizenship and immigration. Analyze the 1790 Naturalization Act. Naturalization is the procedure wherein people become a citizen of a country they were not born in.On March 26, 1790, the Naturalization Act took affect and it provided several guiding rules on granting natural citizenship for immigrants. Several important highlight of this act was that, citizenship was not to be granted to people who were indentured slaves and to the Indians, in addition to that Blacks are not supposed to be granted citizenship in America. This translates to the notion that every Black who enters American territory was expected to become slaves. This Naturalization Act offered vague definition and translation of the Law.As stated in this Act, every immigrant is required a certain period of time of residence in America before being called a citizen in order to appreciate and evaluate the concept of American Democracy. But this Act itself, pre vented anyone who they termed â€Å"colored† from becoming a citizen adding up to their concept of racial discrimination. This Act therefore became a living example of the racial difference and the wall Law created between the whites and the blacks of African decent. 4.Describe the impact of the invention of the cotton gin on the expansion of American slavery. The cotton gin was devised by Eli Whitney a graduate from Yale University. In his pursuit to pay his debt, he went to Georgia and acquired a job as a private tutor. There, he realized that the southern farmers and farm owners were frantic to find ways to increase their yield and profit in cotton production. The issue on cotton production involved the difficulty to separate the fluffy cotton balls and the seeds which sticks to it much.Catherine Greene, Whitney’s employer persuaded him to find a solution to this problem. Greene provided all possible support needed especially in the financial aspect. The development of the cotton gin doubled the yield for raw cotton every decade after 1800. It also opened the doors for more machinery demands, such as the machines to weave or to spin the cotton, and also for the invention of the steamboat to transport it at an ease. There was a production bloom and massive exportation of cotton occurred between America to England and to New England.Immense cotton production truly brought solution to farmer’s problems and greatly uplifted American economy though trade at that era. But like any other inventions meant to discover resolutions to problems, this also carried changes that worsen the American society. And the most historic is the propagation of slavery. Although the cotton gin, decrease the time and amount of labor needed to separate the cotton and the seed, it extremely increased the need of manpower in the form of slaves t grow and harvest the cotton, especially with the expansion of the area of farmlands.In 1808, approximately 80,000 Africans were imported as slaves and the slave population in the South reached up to an estimated 1/3 of the populace. The invention of the cotton gin therefore required more slaves to work under a more tireless and strict regimen, wherein abuse and mistreatment were hence more common as compared before the rise of production pressures brought about by the cotton gin.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Innvations under Globalization in Latin America Research Paper

Innvations under Globalization in Latin America - Research Paper Example Business endeavor in the connection of neoliberal change is vividly outlined on account of Latin America inside the setting of the "Washington Consensus." The Washington Consensus was created throughout the last some piece of the 1980s. The thought behind it was to arrange strategy creators in the creating scene, and especially to help powerless Latin American economies recuperate from the obligation emergency. So dependent upon this, the defenders of globalization think of it as a positive sensation in all regards and the adversaries think of it as the dangerous component of local and national societies because of beating the free enterprise and the increment in financial and political sizes. Due to this, the outcomes of globalization on distinctive parts of human life and diverse matters lead to the disintegration of understandings. The point of this part is to inspect the connection between globalization and improvement. So first the idea of globalization and its source are audite d and after that for better examination of this connection, the impact of globalization on diverse parts of development might be dissected. The creators accept that globalization lessens development emulating the diminishment of assortment in diverse parts of the social order including monetary, social, political and social sizes and slant to coordination and union which has a negative impact on enhancement. The term "globalization" has not an agreeable importance and distinctive definitions are given to it affected by ideological foundations of analysts. Some think about globalization the same as correspondence unrest, different has thought of it as a manifestation of post innovation and some different has viewed it as another type of states without outskirt. The hopeful perspective to this sensation has thought of it as an element for development, peace and companionship and the vicinity of countries, likewise richness of endowments and the negative perspective equivalents it to e mergency neediness and the vanishing of powerless groups and unequal rivalry.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Managing under Uncertainty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managing under Uncertainty - Essay Example The aim of this paper is to explore the formulation and implementation of a strategic approach to Human Resource Management (HRM), especially in times of uncertainty. HRM represents a principal element of an organization’s modernization agenda and is critical to the organization’s performance and productivity. The case offers a unique and unstructured situation in which the new CEO is expected to make a decision under uncertainty. The core problem in the case details low motivation among staff, high staff turnover, and increasing complaints regarding the delivery of the organization’s services and the urge to restore confidence in the system. The organization should invest in its employees and pursue the strengthening of their capabilities to deliver. The proposed human resource system must evolve to collect, develop, and deliver the expected competencies, notwithstanding the fact that the capability of the existing system to accomplish this is doubtful. The new CEO should also embark on creating a job design that allows flexibility of working and accommodates team-working and information provision. The cross cutting issue should be to guaranteeing an effective module, which is accommodative to the change process. The underlying aim of the human resource system is to oversee human resources concurrent  with the set organizational goals. Introduction The critical task facing Tim (the new CEO) centres on implementing a fresh organizational structure and human resource system that matches the organization stature. On top of the low pay to its staff, the club also experiences lack of a concise organizational structure. This is manifested by confusion stemming from directors who overstep their mandate and give work instructions that contradict those given by the immediate supervisors or managers. Moreover, there is substantial factional tension between staff at various operational departments coupled with reported incidences of bullying and di scrimination. The organization faces critical problems manifested by low staff morale and motivation, which impact on behaviour, efficiency, effectiveness, and role performance of most staff. The situation within the organization demands an overhaul of the human resource system pertaining to position descriptions, job specifications, systems and procedures guides, as well as human resource policies and operational policies, all of which are absent. Tim’s proposed solution lies in engaging the employees in the creation, development, and implementation of an all encompassing set of position descriptions, job specifications, system and procedure guides, and human resource policies and operational policies. The CEO believes that staff involvement in all of the processes will aid them to take ownership of their positions and subsequently the resultant operational policies. The inclusive programs are designed to aid the staff in deriving enhanced sense of reward from their future e mployment with the club. In addition, the adoption of competency based succession planning grounded in position descriptions, job specifications and systems and procedures guides avail staff with a tangible incentive to adhere to the new documentation and process as a mechanism designed to enhance their wages via internal promotions. Executives are  frequently  required to implement decisions so as to solve challenges or problems. Decision

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Description memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Description memo - Essay Example Workplace statistics highlight that the best performing employee is a happy employee. For an employee to be more efficient and more productive in todays workplace environment, as market research indicates, a healthy level of communication and relaxed atmosphere is important as these contribute to levels of happiness. The entertainment centre addresses this when compared to other options like using the space as a conference room. The centre will provide a work-free environment for stress relief via access to entertainment components such as television screens with an Apple TV subscription and gaming consoles. Game tournaments will be encouraged and set up to enhance communication while keeping the work-life challenging and interesting. Bean bag chairs and recliner seats will provide comfort during breaks with the cacti and bonsai trees adding a natural feel to the centre. The headphones and individual devices such as the iPads and google glasses are aimed at satisfying the interns ent ertainment needs without compromising ambience through noise pollution. Items such as the vending machine and table tennis set serve the purpose of encouraging interaction and mild entertainment through actual physical engagement. With this critical information in mind the entertainment centre appears to be an ideal response to enhance productivity, morale and communication of the interns in the

Friday, July 26, 2019

International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

International Business - Essay Example The Cold had ended, with the emergence of one single bloc. The world had become a single ‘market place’ (Eriksen, pp.3, 2007). This was aided by the phenomena, Globalisation. Globalisation is undertaken as a reality, and Renato Ruggeriero has put it aptly, a reality that has overwhelmed all others (Scholte, pp.1, 2000). Globalisation has been aided by free trade and the increment of international businesses. What in essence is free trade? There are various definitions of free trade; free trade is trade that is not held up by national or international laws (Baggini, Fosl, pp.32, 2010). Globalisation is a term that is on everyone’s lips. However, only a few people have had a clear and definitive definition of the term. However, definitions form the basis of an individual’s perceptions and evaluations (Scholte, pp.42, 2000). The definition of globalisation, according to the European Commission is: â€Å"Globalisation can be defined as the process by which mar kets and production in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent due to the dynamics of trade in goods and services and flow of capitals and technology† (Held, pp. 92, 2000). In essence, increased trade, and international economic activity, faster communication networks define globalisation. In a way, globalisation has led to the compression of the world. Due to this, the world has been brought closer, in different ways, for better or for worse (Eriksen, pp.4, 2007). The beginning of the paper will identify the benefits that have been brought due to increased trade and international business. The neo-liberals largely advocate the working of the free market, and in effect promote free trade. A very common theory that promotes free trade is that of comparative advantage. This theory assumes that there are two countries in the world, each producing one single good. In a way, these two countries will only produce goods in which they are better off, because it wi ll be more profitable, and exchange the goods with each other. Therefore, ‘comparative advantage theory’ is the rationale for free trade. For example, India and China have a comparative advantage in the production of clothing because of cheap labor. In addition, Japan has a comparative advantage in electronic equipment because it has a technological edge (Gitman & McDaniel, pp.73, 2008). David Ricardo gave this theory. Technically speaking, the consumption frontier of a country will lie outside the production frontier of a company due to free trade (Thirlwall & Lopez, pp.7, 2008). In addition, another rationale for free trade has been the neoclassical factor endowment theory. This theory argues that it is not because of â€Å"technological differences that free trade is required, but because different countries are endowed with different factor supplies† (Todaro & Smith, pp. 560-565, 2003). In a sense, neoclassical thinkers suggest that trade has provided nations with the opportunity to capitalize on those resources which are abundant (Todaro & Smith, pp 561, 2003) In addition, although globalisation has received much criticism, a closer look into statistics will also show that globalisation has created wealth and jobs. Because of globalisation, livings standards have greatly improved, because a large consumer market is created. International competition also keeps prices down, therefore keeping the risk of inflation quite low. For example, since 1997,

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Equity law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Equity law - Essay Example Practically, Hudson (2009) avers that modern equity is limited by both procedural and substantive rules, with legal writers tending to focus on prevailing technicalities. From these are drawn the twelve ‘vague’ ethical statements, referred to as the maxims of equity. The ethical statements further guide in the application of equity according to civil law (Hudson, 2009:24). The concept elicits criticisms that are traceable to historical conceptualization, during its development. This is mainly based upon its lack of fixed rules, further augmented by the fact that it later on lost a majority of its flexibility. The law on perfectly constituted trusts and perfect gifts has been ‘tolerably clear’ since 1862 (Halliwell, 2003:192). This is traceable to the authoritative statement by Turner during the Milroy v Lord case (4 De G.F. & J. 264; 45 E.R. 1185; [1861-1973] All E.R. Rep. 783). Use of the term ‘tolerably clear’ is necessitated by the presence of exceptions, which were previously articulated by courts previously. Influential in this regard is interpretation of the Privy Council’s advice, during the Court of Appeal’s hearing of the Pennington v *Conv. 193 Waine case (Halliwell, 2003:192). Subsequent interpretation of the court’s ruling was viewed as providing courts of equity the unfettered discretion, concerning whether voluntary trusts or gifts should take effect. This is with regard to the role of ‘un-conscionability in Equity’, which requires principled reasoning. Pundits are thus of the view that courts of law need to utilize principled approaches, as opposed to the exercising of unfettered discretion that is based on individual notions of judges pertaining to what is fair or not (Halliwell, 2003:194). The presence of ‘unfettered discretion’ potentially has far reaching consequences, with regard to voluntary property dispositions. Thus, the presence of voluntary settlement can occur by way of

Homeopathy degree-Anatomy & Physiology module- Written assessment Essay

Homeopathy degree-Anatomy & Physiology module- Written assessment - Essay Example 33). However, some plausible risk factors which should be looked at before diagnosis are genetics and aging. A patient with the disease might have inherited it from their mothers. The malady has been suggested to result from changes in chromosomes or genes. Therefore the patient’s history on this malady should be well established based on the medical pedigree, (Cooke & Trickey 2002, pp. 50). The disease is commonly experienced by women aged around 25 to 35 years old as well as women in postmenopausal age. Post menopausal women are characterized by high levels of aromatase and the hormone progesterone resistance. However, it should not be a surprise if it is reported in young girl of age 11, (Garcia-Velasco & Rizk 2010, p. 19). Some of the complications which might be realized apart from infertility related to scars formed in the process of endometriosis and due to release of cytokines and other chemical agents which interfere with reproduction are chronic pelvic pains and endometriomas (large cysts). All these defects might be related to treatment procedure such as hormone treatment which might result in release of the said chemicals and some medical implants done during surgery which may block gastrointestinal tracts. Generally the referred red flags are the age, severity of the disease, genetics and probably the reoccurrence of the disease as a complication. (Storck 2 011, p. 1) Hormone treatment: Hormone treatment is done to improve symptoms such as painful menstruations, painful intercourse and painful pelvic by suppressing endometriosis. The drugs administered t break the cycle of incentive and bleeding includes progesterone pills or injections, gonadotropin and danazol (Stops the production of estrogen by the ovaries), contraceptive pills (prescribed for mild endometriosis in young women), and mirena coil (reduces the amount of blood flow during menstruation), (Tulandi & Redwine 2004, p. 31). Surgery can be pelvic

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Venezuela under Hugo Chavez Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Venezuela under Hugo Chavez - Essay Example He directed the movement in an unproductive coup overthrow against the Democratic Action government of Carlos Andrà ©s Pà ©rez, who was the president in 1992. This led to the imprisonment of Hugo Rafael Chà ¡vez Frà ­as (Feinberg, 1). Later on, after he was released, he formed a socialist political party two years later, it was called the Fifth Republic Movement, and he was voted president of Venezuela in 1998. In 2000, he was re-elected and during this second term he presented the system of communal groups, Bolivarian Missions, and employee-managed companies, along with a land reform program, which was municipalizing main industries. In 2006, he was re-elected again with more than 60% of the votes. After emerging victorious in his fourth tenure as president in October 2012, defeating Henrique Capriles, Hugo Rafael Chà ¡vez Frà ­as was sworn on 10th January 2013. However, the Venezuela National Assembly decided to postpone the inaugural ceremony to give him time to enable him r ecuperate from medical treatment in Cuba, which resulted from a cancer return that was initially identified in June 2011. On 5th March 2013, Hugo Rafael Chà ¡vez Frà ­as passed away in Caracas at 58 years. During the duration Venezuela was under Hugo Chà ¡vez, it was not a democratic country, though Chà ¡vez was not a dictator, he crushed the democracy of the Venezuelan nation. In a period when South America was swiftly moving towards the far-left demagoguery from its ancient binaries of far-right, Chà ¡vez was still holding Venezuela back in the past, both politically and economically. Under the decade of Chà ¡vez, while other nations like Peru and Brazil became representations of equality and success, Venezuela appeared to go back to the bad ancient days. It is true that the polls were usually well-conducted and fair under his regime. He even freely accepted defeat in one.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Effectiveness of Teamwork in Virtual Teams Dissertation

Effectiveness of Teamwork in Virtual Teams - Dissertation Example .56 6.2. Ways to solve the problem 6.2.1. Virtual team management..59 6.2.2. Leaderships.60 6.2.3. Training provided for team members.63 6.2.4. Trust building among team members.64 6.2.5. Effective communications, e.g. add the frequency of face-to-face contacts..66 6.2.6. Boundary Management..69 Chapter 7: Case Study of Virtual Collaboration 7.1. The context and challenge.72 7.2. The challenge of building a virtual team...73 7.3. Defining a compelling challenge..73 7.4. Creating involvement ...74 7.5. Managing performance..75 7.6. Demonstrating commitment .76 7.7. Team success and illustrative outcomes ...77 7.8. Dynamics in a Global Virtual Team..78 7.9. Implications for virtual team leaders ....78 Chapter 8: Guidelines 8.1.Guidelines...80 Chapter 9: Conclusions 9.1. Summaries and Conlusions...86 Bibliography Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background introduction 1.1.1. The origins of teamwork Much of the behavior of an individual in an organization is an expression of his place in the group to which he belongs. These groups tend to develop persistent patterns in their relations to each other. Because members identify with their own groups, they may express fairly uniform attitudes toward other groups. In some cases, well-developed patterns of antagonism are found between groups, with each being critical of the others and defensive toward itself. Thus, natural conflicts of interest exist even in the most wisely designed organizations. The formal structure typically establishes the basis for these conflicts by the way it differentiates its work units. With all of the diligence and understanding a manager can exert, differentiation across formal units and cohesion within each of them are the almost inevitable consequences of... If a group is not integrated, teamwork is likely to be minimal-regardless of efforts to develop it. Conversely, where integration in a group is high, there is greater potential for the development of teamwork. High cohesion is a necessary ingredient for the development of teamwork, but not the only one. In order for teamwork to be developed, a number of other elements are essential. Many factors operate to encourage the development of team relationships. Common membership in a particular group, the possession of a common terminology, the sharing of a common doctrine, common problems with regard to the current operational situation of the team, and common understandings of its significance, the possession of common means and channels of communication, the fact of frequent association, and shared values regarding the necessity for working as a team-these are all factors that enhance the development of teamwork. Nonetheless, the presence of the above factors alone will not assure effective teamwork. In addition, the development of a closely knit team requires each member to possess a frame of reference that embraces cooperation and coordination as operational requirements. When people act at cross purposes, it is because they are impelled by individual, rather than common, motives or by motives that are incompatible and irreconcilable. On the other hand, teamwork develops through the efforts of individuals who possess motives that require cooperative activities for their attainment.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Online dating Essay Example for Free

Online dating Essay Online dating which allows individuals, couples and groups to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal romantic or sexual relationship. Around 30% of Americas 80 million baby boomers are single. Since 2003, several free dating sites, operating on ad based-revenue rather than monthly subscriptions, have appeared and become increasingly popular. These advertisements are nothing but merely deception. The way it works is impractical and unrealistic. Id say it is one of the most passive ways that some lonely person sitting on his couch all day can find the fantasy woman of his dreams. Advertisers use different methods to attract consumers in an effort to entice them to buy their products. E-Harmony, an online dating service, uses a form of deception to attract the consumer in an attempt to lure the person into signing up for their dating service. Their practice is not entirely deceptive, but is for the most part. The ad portrays two people, blissfully in love. With brightly lit smiles while gazing lovingly into each others eyes, each person explains how he or she found their own true love by using this service. The e-Harmony success story continues as they explain how the person they are madly in love with is simply perfect for them in every way. Love and romance practically jumps out from the ad. The ad is somewhat deceptive because it makes it look like all a lonely person who is looking for a meaningful relationship has to do is go to e-Harmony, and he or she will instantly find true love. Yes, it is possible to find someone using this service but it is not realistic. People who use the service go through a longer process, meeting different potential partners, getting to know them and more than likely moving on to the next prospect. The ad makes it look too easy to find someone to be involved with in a serious relationship. By placing the entire focus on the ultimate goal, and exaggerating the potential end result (two people madly in love) plays on the viewers emotions. Someone who is in this situation may be vulnerable, so being subjected to the image of lovers ultimate bliss, may cause him or her not to think rationally. That picture of two exceedingly happy lovers is what that viewer may yearn for to the point of believing what the ad sells, an expectation that is more than likely too high.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Overview Segmenting B2c Markets Marketing Essay

Overview Segmenting B2c Markets Marketing Essay Over the years, the traditional face of marketing has changed. Whilst organisations recognize that they can no longer take their customers loyalty for granted, and need to adopt ongoing marketing strategies to stay ahead of their competitors (A general review, 2006, p. 23-25). Consequently, the target and strategy are crucial for a companys marketing. The company aims to bring a new brand of multivitamins called Supreme to the market. The product range includes Multivitamin and Iron, Multivitamin and minerals, Zinc, Cod Liver Oil, Effervescent Vitamin C, and Evening Primrose Oil. These different Multivitamins were identified through initial market research undertaking with the proposed target market. Indeed, it needs a detailed analysis for the segmentation and targeting process in order to reach the affluent end of the market. Therefore, it must be focus on the strategy such as segmentation, the differences between B2C and B2B for segmentation processes; the marketing phrase of targeting and how to make a segment and target market for the new range of products. Market segmentation is the process through, which consumers needs and desires, purchasing behaviour and buying habits are identified in order to divide the overall market for certain products into several consumer group market segments. Mass production, mass communication, technology, globalisation has helped create larger and lucrative potential markets. Organisations do not have the resources to or the inclination to be a single force within a loosely defined market (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006, p.193). The whole market can be seen as an orange, each segment of the orange represents a different market based upon geographic, demographic, Geodemographic, psychographic and behavioural similarities. According to the geographical factors for consumers segmentation, is where the geographical position and geographical environment variables to segment the market. Because in different geographic environments customers may have different needs and preferences for the same kind of products. According to statistics, personality factors subdivision is by age, sex, occupation, family income, family, life cycle, race, religion, nationality, variables, thus the market will be divided into different groups. Additionally, geodemographic combines demographic and geographic information together to help organizations know where the customers are and how many people there are. And then, the psychological factors, groups consumers according to their life style, personality, purchasing motivation, attitude, on different variables subdivided into the different groups. At last, the behavioural factors subdivision is that according to the consumers to purchase or used a commodity of time, purchase quantity, purchase frequency and the brand loyalty variables to segment market. segmenting B2B markets Business to business (B2B) segmentation is focused on the organization and the individual buyers. Macro Segmentation is based on the characteristics of organisations and the broader purchasing contexts they operate within. It assumes organisations will exhibit similar patterns and needs, reflected by their same buying behaviour. Bases used for macro segmentation are easily obtained from secondary information and grouped into two main categories which are organisational characteristics and product or service application. There are three organisational characteristics which are size, location and usage rate. Generally, the size of an organisation can make a difference in suppliers and purchasing. Organisations may sell according to the geographic concentration of the industries to serve. Additionally, the quantity of product purchased can categorise the difference in potential customers. Product or service application is the second group of segmentation based on acknowledge that the sa me goods can be used in many different ways. Looking at customer groupings within specific industries defined by standard industrial classification (SIC) codes. The SIC codes help identify sectors with a greater propensity to use particular products for particular applications. For example, glass has many uses to the motor industry.furthermore, Micro segmentation within macro segment a number of smaller micro segments may exist (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006, p.195).To focus on these, the organisation needs to have a detailed knowledge of individual members of the macro segment; while their management philosophy, decision-making structures, purchasing policies and strategies and their needs and wants. Much Information on these can come from published sources, past experience of potential buyer, sales force knowledge and experience, word-of-mouth, or the first hand from potential buyer. Overall, it has a number of ways to be able to segment business to business market to relate the n ature of product sold and the buying organisation. segmenting B2C markets In B2C (business to consumer) markets, there are five main categories of segmentation which are defined geographic, demographic, geodemographic, psychographic and behaviour based. Between them, they cover the full range of characteristics, such as descriptive, measurable, tangible or intangible, relating to the buyers lifestyle and the relationships with the product (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006, p.220). Geographic segmentation, it can be defined as the location for the consumer and based on the regional variables like region, country, city, climate, population density, and traffic. Demographic segmentation variables include age, gender, race, income, family lifecycle, occupation, education, religion, socioeconomic and nationality. Many of these variables have standard categories for the consumers values. Geodemographic segmentation is based on the analysis of people by where they live (Sleight, 1997, p.16) and combines geographic and demographic information together. Psychographic segmentation involves intangible variable such as lifestyle, activities, attitude, interests, values and opinion of the potential customer. Behavioral segmentation is based on actual customer behavior or the individuals relationship with the products. Some variables include benefit sought, end use, usage rate, brand loyalty, buyer readiness, price sensitivity and occasions. All the relevant characteristics from these five categories are suit for the market to segment. 2.4 targeting The target market is identified through market segmentation organisations provide appropriate products and services to meet the needs of customer or several sub-markets. There are three types of targeting for marketing mix strategies which are undifferentiated strategy, differentiated strategy and concentrated strategy. Firstly, the undifferentiated strategy approach is the demanding of the three approaches that assume the whole market is one great homogeneous unit without differences individuals in the market. Secondly, the differentiated strategy contains the development of a number of individual marketing mixes, each of them serve the different segment (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006, p.212). Finally, the concentrated strategy is the most focused approach and involves serving one specific segment. It can lead to detailed understanding of the target segments needs and wants. Discussion The differences between B2B and B2C on the segmentation The B2C markets have some similarities with B2B segmentation. However, the main distinction between both approaches is that a consumer purchases on emotion and a business purchases on logic, although they both selling a product or a service to the individual or groups, the marketing is difference for business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C). The B2B market relies on very different sales strategies to be successful than the business to consumer market because the B2B sales market very relies on relationship selling and the sales can obtain in a longer term sales cycle than B2C(business to consumer) sales. The main difference is that consumer segments always much larger in terms of number of potential buyers. Consumer segmentation also bases on the buyers lifestyle and context because of most consumers purchases fulfill high-end needs rather than simply functional ones (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006, p.197). Certainly, they also have the difference segmentation for their different marketing. By the previous analysis of B2B segmentation, its divided into macro and micro variables or bases. Macro segmentation is the whole market share common general characteristics which have three characteristics are size, location and usage rate; micro segments based on differences in specific buying characteristics. In contrast, in consumer markets, in other words, it is B2C market; five main categories of segmentation are defined as geographic, demographic, Geodemographic, psychographic and behaviour. Thus they can divide into different aspects to segment the B2C market. For example, age, according to the age level to segment the market because these different kinds of multivitamins for different age level have different efficacy. Such as children need iron and zinc, multivitamin and minerals for teens and young, effervescent vitamin C for middle and cod liver oil and evening primrose oil for elderly. In addition, the gender and education level as target. Like high school, college and university, on the different level of studying they need different nutrients to supplement. Furthermore, not the same level of income for the individuals also can decide the different markets. Such cod liver oil and evening primrose oil is much expensive than the other multivitamins. Additionally, ethnic or religious background also can act as a basis to segment a market. Like as some religions cannot consume cod. Moreover, the family life cycle also is a point to have the market. For example, newly married, married for 10 20 years, with or without children. Overall, they both have different property to have the way to segment the market they needed for B2C and B2B. At the end, all the multivitamins products will have the appropriate market in the small groups to sale because of the market have segmented different layer based on the market segmentation standards. segment the market for the new multivitamins It is suggested that two main strategies to segment and target the market for the new multivitamins. One is the brand strategy and another one is the pricing strategy. Firstly, As Ruvalcaba and Elkes (2008) suggest: we have to find a way to diverge from others, to differentiate your offering through your branding work so that the offering stands out as relevant and superior in value to a clear target market. The brand is to give owner produce value-added of intangible assets, it could be used to separate with other competitors products of name, terminology, symbols or design and their combination, value-added source from the products impression of consumer heart formed. Businesses that are at the top of consumers minds have a high market share. Consistent, creative advertising will get the business top of mind awareness (TOMA RESEARCH, 2010). Brand awareness refers to the strength of a brand presence of a brand in the memory of a consumer. Brand awareness can create a reason to buy as well as a basis for a customer relationship (Aaker McLoughlin, 2007). For example, according to the brand awareness and radiation region, the new products can be divided into areas brand, domestic brands and international brand thus the new products have the different market in the geographic area. For multivitamins, the key proposition of the supreme brand is healthy. The main elements of the proposition include the kinds of multivitamins that different populations needed and keep healthy. Moreover, supreme follows a strategy of product innovation, in order to achieve a long term objectives. It takes the form of timely new product launches to enable the brand to more closely meet the needs of different types of consumers in different areas. Secondly, pricing strategy is another popular strategy which utilize for marketing. The limited use of pricing as a strategic tool to gain and hold competitive advantage has created an opportunity for companies willing to redesign their competitive portfolios and go with unorthodox strategy mixes (Thompson Coe, 1997). Cutting price of the products can be considered as an easiest way to absorb the customers. Therefore, pricing control also can be used to segment the different suitable markets. For example, the actions for the new product market can be cutting down the price to open the new market for new products in order to make more consumer known about these products, like have a small gifts if buying a bottle of multivitamins, buying one more than getting another free one or special discount for different type of multivitamins that have different kinds of efficacy, in particular date are very popular in sales industry to obtain more benefit. These actions also can execute in the center of city or the town center to segment the market. The effect of cutting price may increase the quantity demanded, however, a major barrier to the use of value pricing has been the belief that industrial markets are largely inelastic, therefore, price will not be a major determinant of quantity demanded (Barney, 1991). The reason for that is for the company, it is difficult to find the exact right price that matches the expectations of customers. Besides, blindfolded cutting price will lead an unhealthy competition environment with competitors. The result of conflicting on sale  is all companies losing profits at the end. For short term, it could be suitable, acceptable and feasible, but for long term, for example, once the customers have get used to buy the product on a sale price, it is difficult to raise the price again. Then it is unacceptable, the risk is too high. The customers would not consider the price seriously again. Therefore, the pricing strategy is not suitable for long term. Focus on fits the two main criterions of a good marketing strategy. The key of marketing is value, which can be defined as a ratio between benefits and costs between the customer gets and the organizations gives. The suitability of target is obvious, no matter improves the brand awareness, the quantity of product or the price control to share the same purpose, which is to gain profit. It is the mission of marketing. All these two aspects help the supreme to reach the goal, thus brand positioning and price consideration is suitable. Although there are risks, such as investment in advertising and building sponsor relationship with other organisations will cost, it is deemed worth the risks. Overall, continual segmentation is vital to fully understand consumer needs and changing habits. This will help provide appropriate produces to satisfied their needs and wants. Conclusion Segmentation is the tool that enables supreme to identify different groups of customers and markets, and provide the best possible products to meet individual or groups requirements. It also brings a number of benefits to both the consumer and the organization. The new multivitamins market consists of different consumers with differing needs. Focusing on branding positioning is a comprehensive strategy for the new multivitamins products to achieve a successful marketing. Whereas, as a diversified product, it should use many ways and the marketing segment strategies to sale in order to get the profit. In other words, the multivitamins still needs to focus on the different segmenting market. Alluring more consumers and keeping the regular customers in main areas to build brand loyalty are the main missions at present. They are still the primary objects for multivitamins to make profit and sustain operation.

Grays Behavioral Activation System Psychology Essay

Grays Behavioral Activation System Psychology Essay Gray proposed that personality is rooted from two neuropsychological systems that control behavior and emotions. One of the two systems is the behavioral activation system (BAS), which functions on the concept of positive reinforcement. Previous research has indicated that the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways are responsible for the activation of BAS and sensitivity to the construct produces heightened reward from positive reinforcement. As such, prior studies have demonstrated similar correlations between high BAS sensitivity and low P300 amplitude as a precursor for psychopathological disorders, due to reward dependency. The present study used the Carver White (1994) questionnaire to obtain the BIS/BAS scales of 9 healthy, introductory psychology students. The event-related potential was an oddball paradigm of high frequency, low frequency and novel tones and P300 averages were extracted from an EEG. The low and high BAS scores both produced similar amplitudes, however the low sco res produced a shorter latency. The results indicate inconsistency and emphasize the need for further scientific research to expand on theoretical constructs, such as personality. Introduction Historically, the construct of personality was developed based upon philosophical principles that sought to explain the human psyche. As the theories of personality have become a major part of mainstream psychology today, the biopsychological components of personality have evolved into an innovative area of scientific research. Gray (1987) argued that personality is influenced by the two brain systems that control behavior and emotions. A component of this theory, the behavioral activation system, is portrayed as a personality construct with a neurological foundation. A neuropsychological paradigm is crucial in the deconstruction of theoretical hypotheses to influence the expansion and application of knowledge regarding human behavior. The use of electroencephalograms with event-related potentials and personality questionnaires regarding the behavioral activation system emphasize the importance for exploring theoretical constructs with scientific research. Based on research from animal learning paradigms, Grays (1993) personality theory asserts the idea that individual differences in personality traits mirror the variability in sensitivity towards stimuli affiliated with negative and positive reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). The behavioral activation system is a neurological reward mechanism that is initiated by positive reinforcement. It mediates responses to signals of conditioned reward, non-punishment, escape from punishment and the activation influences progression toward goals (Harmon-Jones Allen, 1997). The opposite emotional system is the behavioral inhibition system; which is activated by conditioned stimuli associated with punishment or the termination of reward (Franken et al., 2006). That being said, the behavioral activation and inhibition systems are extremes of a continuum in which ones behavior is likely to be reinforced positively or negatively, depending on which part of the continuum they score. The behavioral activation system (BAS) is connected to positive feelings and approach behaviors when experiencing a reward (Gable et al., 2000). For example, an individual with high BAS sensitivity would seek out everyday type situations where they experienced positive reinforcement, or search for similar situations where they have a chance of being positively reinforced. Positive reinforcement is how people thrive in the world. From an evolutionary perspective, to go out and hunt for food when experiencing hunger, find food and bring it home to eat and share with family members so they can survive is an example of everyday positive reinforcement. The key difference between a typical situation and a situation in regards to an individual with high BAS sensitivity would be that the positive reinforcement would be differentially reinforced more so in comparison to conventional reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). Grays (1993) theory of personality suggests that those with high behavioral activation sensitivity are predisposed to psychopathological disorders due to their perceived response from positive, differential reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). That being said, impulsivity is a key characteristic of high BAS sensitivity and is a major variable in the susceptibility of risky behavior. Other correlations to high sensitivity are high psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion, which demonstrates that high BAS sensitivity, could act as a precursor for delinquency among the population (Jorm et al., 1999). Neuroscience is beginning to identify strong relationships between BAS sensitivity and approach behaviors such as; conduct disorder, alcoholism, substance abuse and psychopathy. According to Gray (1993), the biological basis of BAS is associated with mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways ascending from nucleus A10 of the ventral tegmentum of the brainstem (Matthews Gilliland, 1999). Recent studies involving substance use indicate the similarity between dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and the emotional high observed in alcohol and drug users. Thus, implying that BAS sensitivity and is related to addictive behaviors and substance abusers have an increased responsiveness to stimuli associated with rewards (Franken et al., 2006). Sutton and Davidson (1997) claim that throughout various clinical and laboratory observations, the left prefrontal cortex is a biological substrate of approach behavior and positive affect; whereas the right prefrontal cortex exhibits the opposite behaviors, imposing the locality of the behavioral inhibition system. When damaged, the left prefrontal cortex influences depressive symptomatology due to the inhibition of approach behaviors (Sutton Davidson, 1997). More specifically, the reward signal begins with increased dopamine cellular activity in the ventral tegmental area, which labels environmental stimuli with appetitive value and appears to signal motivating events (Kalivas Nakamura, 1999). The glutamatergic input from the amygdala and afferents cue behavior if the stimulus is a conditioned reward. The nucleus accumbens and afferents to the nucleus accumbens serve distinct functions involving motivational circuitry, which would reinforce the behavior. The major neurotransmitters involved in the motivational circuitry are GABA, glutamate and dopamine, however; encephalin, serotonin and acetylcholine are also present. Finally, afferents from the prefrontal cortex integrate information from short-term memory into a behavioral response (Kalivas Nakamura, 1999). To explore theories of previous research regarding brain localization and processes of BAS, a method of measuring cortical activation could be initiated, such as an event-related potential with an electroencephalogram (EEG). Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a non-invasive method of measuring brain activity during cognitive processing (Johnson et al., 1987). ERPs are linked in time with a physical or mental event and are extracted from an EEG by means of signal averaging (Duncan et al., 2009). The transient electric potential shifts are time-locked to the stimulus onset; such as the presentation of a word, sound, or image. Each component reflects brain activation associated with one or more neurological operations. In contrast to behavioral measures, such as error rates and response times, ERPs are characterized by simultaneous multi-dimensional online measures of negative or positive polarity, amplitude, latency, scalp distribution and its relation to experimental variables (Dunca n et al., 2009). Thus, ERPs are beneficial and can be used to differentiate and aid in the identification of psychological and neural sub-processes involved in complex cognitive, motor or perceptual tasks (Nijs et al. 2007). An electroencephalogram (EEG) precisely measures these shifts in polarity with a distribution of electrodes placed on the participants scalp (Duncan et al., 2009). The most analyzed component of the event-related potentials is at the p300 wave. Peaking as early as 250ms or as late as 900ms, the p300 is emitted by the brain when the participant recognizes and processes and incoming stimulus (Coles Rugg, 1995). It is usually elicited using the oddball paradigm in which low-probability target items are mixed with high-probability non-target items. The latency between stimulus and response is the stimulus evaluation time and is controlled by the pace in which the subject can place the stimulus into the correct category and respond (Coles Rugg, 1995). The amplitude of the p300 depends on the probability of the target stimulus, and in an oddball paradigm, the rarer the event; the larger the amplitude will be of the p300 (Coles Rugg, 1995). The amount of information processed also influences the amplitude suggesting that the p300 reflects a process in which the incoming information modifies and updates the current model of the environment (Coles R ugg, 1995). The p300 is divided into two components: the P3a and the P3b. The P3a is elicited over the frontal regions of the scalp and is represented as a positive component. The P3a occurs when a third novel stimulus is incorporated into the simple oddball structure and has a shorter latency than the p300 (Johnson et al., 1987). The P3b is then defined as the classical p300, which is distributed over the centro-parietal area. The behavioral activation system has three subscale components: reward-responsiveness, fun seeking and drive. The reward system and brain structures hypothesized in previous studies provide a strong argument in regards to BAS. Increased levels of dopamine and high BAS scores should be significantly correlated, as the function of dopamine involves increasing the readiness to discover new experiences. As such, it should also be appreciated that norepinephrine was not included as a key player in the neurotransmitters involving the reward system. One would assume that dopamine and norepinephrine would go hand in hand in regards to reward, as norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter involved in motivation (Franken et al., 2006). A study by Nijs et al. (2007) was conducted on 50 healthy, adult individuals using the Carver and White (1994) questionnaire and a visual oddball paradigm with averaging from an EEG. Previous studies incorporating BAS scores and extracting ERP averages from an EEG were unknown to Nijs et al. (2007), however they predicted a negative correlation between BAS scores and the p300 amplitude for their study. They did address the reoccurring theme in previous research of a low p300 amplitude and impulsivity, psychopathy and substance use disorders. The results of the study demonstrated significant positive correlations were found between BAS and p300 amplitude (Nijs et al., 2007). Therefore, the hypothesis for this study is that those with high BAS sensitivity scores will produce large p300 amplitude to the rare stimulus, because of the P3bs indication of low activity in those with psychiatric disorders. Methods Sample Participants for the study were recruited from introductory to psychology classes. They were given the option of writing a paper or volunteering for a study involving personality in the research lab and receiving credit compensation. Those who volunteered for the study were informed that if they were on medication or had medical conditions that conflicted with EEG results, then they would be discharged. This research study initially began with a total of twelve introductory to psychology students; however, adequate data was only retrieved from nine participants. Instruments An online version of the Carver and White (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Questionnaire was completed by each participant prior to the study. This questionnaire is the latest BAS/BIS updated measurement questionnaire involving the three subscales of BAS (reward responsiveness, drive and fun seeking). Upon arrival, a medical form was filled out to give an indication of health status and a consent form was distributed and signed. A type of oddball paradigm was utilized and an electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded and averaged the corresponding event-related potentials. Procedure After receiving the completed questionnaires, the total scores were then calculated. Those students participating in the study were given an outline of the regulations and procedures of the experiment. Upon entering the research laboratory, the medical and consent forms were filled out before commencing the study. Participants were then connected to the EEG using the Jasper 10-20 placement, which particularly involves the electrodes Fz, Cz, Pz and reference electrodes behind the ears. Electrodes were also placed under the right eye and the ground electrode on the forehead to identify muscle activity that might be confused with brain activity. The student was then directed into an isolated room where they received headphones and were presented with the oddball paradigm. In random sequence a rare low frequency tone, high frequency tone and a novel tone were administered. The participants were made aware that when the target low frequency tone was presented they needed to respond by cli cking a button. Once all stimuli were executed, participants were disconnected from the EEG instruments and the data obtained was explained. Any questions the participants had were answered and credit compensation was then provided. Results Those who scored high in behavioral activation system on the Carver and White (1994) questionnaire showed small P300 amplitude. P300 amplitude also highlighted a positive correlation in regards to the rare stimulus: as BAS scores increased, P3b amplitude increased. The high BAS scores produced a longer latency on the P300, in comparison to the low BAS scores. Those who scored low in behavioral activation system had similar P300 amplitudes indicating a non-significant result among averages of the two groups. Those who scored low in BAS also exhibited a significantly shorter latency, meaning they were quicker to respond and categorize the incoming stimuli. Table 1. P3 amplitude and latency scores for high and low scores on BAS personality trait. Figure 1. Average of high and low BAS scores extracted from Pz component of EEG electrode using oddball paradigm ERP.kathleen curtis Graph averages P3 High and low.jpg Discussion The present study hypothesized that higher BAS scores would produce large P300 amplitude. The results showed inconsistency, as there is not a significant difference among those who scored high and low on the behavioral activation system scale in this study. The amplitudes at Fz, Cz and Pz were all relatively small and similar among low and high BAS scores. The significant data found in the results was the latency differences between high and low scores. Each electrode produced a significantly different result with the lower scores having shorter latencies. Those who scored higher on the Carver White (1994) BAS questionnaire respond slower to the evaluation of stimuli than those who scored lower. As both low and high scores generated similar amplitudes, generalizing previous studies of high BAS sensitivity and low P300 amplitude should be cautioned. The sample size of this study was small; therefore further research should increase this to obtain a more representative sample. The age of participants is also a factor that should be taken into consideration for this study, as alterations in behavioral activation and inhibition scores have been known to occur with time. The gender of the participants is a variable that should be recognized for future research as personality and gender could be interrelated. Also, the accuracy of the participants performance on the online questionnaires is a limitation for consideration and the stimuli may also not represent a true portrait of the construct. Both theoretical and neuropsychological explanations contribute the greatest understanding of constructs in psychology, such as personality. This is evident among the research conducted that involves the behavioral activation system. These advancements allow for the expansion and application of such knowledge to situations that have the potential to better society. For example, awareness of the behavioral activation and inhibition systems could aid the education systems to develop curriculum that is more suitable to the individual. Also, more intensive BIS/BAS measurements could potentially identify children/youth at risk and induce the early on set of proactive measures. It is obvious the possibilities are endless when the latest technology brings together science and theory.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Impact of RBI?s Monetary Policy for the Last Two Decades and Medium Te :: essays research papers

We are indebted to Prof.Bala V Balachandran, Prof.Lakshmi Kumar. The views expressed herein are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Great Lakes Institute of Management.  © 2004 by Kaushik.P All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including  © notice, is given to the source. "Impact of RBI’s Monetary Policy for the Last Two Decades and Medium Term Strategy for Managing Foreign Exchange Reserves." --Macro Economics Kaushik.P Srinagar Colony, Off Raj Bhavan Road, 24, South Mada Street, Chennai - 600015, India Preamble: The Monetary Policy, traditionally announced twice a year, regulates the supply of money and the cost and availability of credit in the economy. It deals with both the lending and borrowing rates of interest for commercial banks. The Monetary Policy aims to maintain price stability, full employment and economic growth. The Reserve Bank of India is responsible for formulating and implementing Monetary Policy. It can increase or decrease the supply of currency as well as interest rate, carry out open market operations, control credit and vary the reserve requirements. Objectives: The objective of price stability has, however, gained further importance following the opening-up of the economy and the deregulation of financial markets in India in recent times. There are four main 'channels' which the RBI looks at:  · Quantum channel: money supply and credit (affects real output and price level through changes in reserves money, money supply and credit aggregates).  · Interest rate channel.  · Exchange rate channel (linked to the currency).  · Asset price. Monetary Policy: Pre-Reform (Prior 1992) In the pre-reform era, the financial market in India was highly segmented and regulated. The money market lacked depth, with only the overnight interbank market in place. The interest rates in the government securities market and the credit market were tightly regulated. The dispensation of credit to the Government took place via a statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) process whereby the commercial banks were made to set aside substantial portions of their liabilities for investment in government securities at below market interest rates. Furthermore, credit to the commercial sector was regulated, with prescriptions of multiple lending rates and a prevalence of directed credit at highly subsidised interest rates. Monetary policy had to address itself to the task of neutralising the inflationary impact of the growing deficit. The Reserve Bank had to resort to direct instruments of monetary control, in particular the cash reserve ratio.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Tim Paterson :: essays research papers

Tim Paterson, also known as the "Father of Dos" is the computer programmer who created the world's most widely used computer program: DOS. Creating DOS at age 24, Paterson claims, "it is an accomplishment that probably can't be repeated by anyone ever." After Paterson graduated from University of Washington in Seattle with a bachelors of science degree, he tried going to graduate school but lost interest. "I thought they were too oriented towards theory and not what I needed." Although he received a good education at U of W, Paterson did not learn the majority of his computer skills from text books. "I learned it by reading and playing with it. I got a lot of exposure to electronics stuff at home." Throughout his education and experience with computers, Tim Paterson as become one of the most genius computer programmers of our time. After college, Paterson landed a job as a computer technician at a Seattle area retail computer store. Because of his experience with computers, Paterson stared designing his own peripheral boards on the side. Through his job and his computer experience, Paterson was hired into a better job. "I got to know Rod Brock of Seattle Computer when he came into the store periodically. We were selling his boards. Eventually he asked me to consult for Seattle Computer." After helping the company fix there memory boards at fifty dollars a day, they offered him a full time position and Paterson quit his job at the retail store. The first major task Seattle Computer threw at Paterson was building an operation system for their new computer; the CP/M. Paterson was a little hesitant at first in creating such a program but he put up to the challenge. "I had always wanted to write my own operating system. I’ve always hated CP/M and thought I could do it a lot better." Little did he know before he started the project that he was about to create the "the world's most widely used computer program." By the spring of 1980, Paterson had created a program called QDOS.10 (stands for Quick and Dirty). After finding bugs in the program, he fixed the problem and named it QDOS.11. By the end of August 1980, the program was working well and being shipped. Not knowing the great potential of his new program, Paterson was not expecting much from it. "I was aghast," says Paterson, "When I heard that IBM was using it (QDOS.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Subject-Object Relation in Mullâ Sadrâ’s Theory of Knowledge :: Philosophy Philosophical Papers

Subject-Object Relation in Mullà ¢ Sadrà ¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Theory of Knowledge ABSTRACT: Dividing knowledge to knowledge by presence and knowledge by representation, Mullà ¢ Sadrà ¢ treats the subject-object relation with regard to each one of them differently. In the former, the subject is united with the object, or rather they are one, and the reality of knowledge is this very unity. In this type of knowledge, there is no medium. Such unity culminates, on the one hand, in knowledge by presence comprehensively and completely conveying the objective reality, and in its untransferability on the other. By contrast, in knowledge by representation, the subject experiences another kind of relation to the object of knowledge thanks to the presence of a medium in the subject’s mind, called "mental form." Mullà ¢ Sadrà ¢ considers mental forms as the mental existence of the same quiddities (mà ¢hà ®yyà ¢t) existing in the external world. The only difference is that they have another type of existence. In this essay, I argue that this approach is congruent with the principality of quiddity, which is rejected by Mullà ¢ Sadrà ¢. To be consistent with the basic pillar of Mullà ¢ Sadrà ¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s philosophy, viz., the principle of existence, I hold that one should begin with the continuity of existence through mental, imagery and external worlds from which the mind abstracts the same quiddity, not vice versa. The problem of the interaction between subject and object in the process of cognition is a crucial issue in a theory of knowledge. Cognition, a unique window on the objective world, has captured the attention and motivated research and debate by scholars in a wide variety of fields over millennia. In all discussions regarding the phenomenon of knowledge, one question has always been raised no matter what the approach, method or focus of inquiry employed. For Kant, the distinction between nomenon and phenomenon and the determination of categories were major concerns. For the psychology of sensation and perception, the search continues for scientific methods to settle the extent to which an individual vis à   vis the environment effects the content, as well as the form, of sensory perception. In the tradition of Islamic philosophy, discussion revolves around the relation between ‘à ¢lim and ma‘là »m (knower and known). The question, expressed more precisely is: How much of what we know can be credited to objective reality per se, and how much is the creation, influence, or interference, of our mental power? It might also be asked how much and in what ways this influence alters the reality of the object of our cognitive system.

Pip’s family Essay

In chapter one of the story we discover that Pip’s family is deceased, well apart from his sister. They all died from common diseases like flu and measles and other illnesses which some were treatable but, medicine was not affordable for the poor. The social conditions in the nineteenth century were unfortunate. There wasn’t much medicine and there were no cure for common diseases and there was a lot of poverty, poor people had to work which includes children working in factories, there wasn’t in the least of education for the poor. This all tells us that life was hard to live in Britain in the nineteenth century if you were poor. Today in Britain it is greatly different, there is less poverty, more education, affordable prices for medicine, children don’t need to work to support there family, also there is the NHS health service and there is child benefit along with income support. Pip encounters an escaped convict when he goes to see his mother’s grave. Pip was petrified when he saw this convict; he was an enormous man and was chained up to his legs. In those days all convicts were known as murders so when Pip met him he was horrified. Then the convict forces Pip to bring food to eat and a filer to break lose from the chains on his hands and legs. In Pip’s village the standard of education was important but the poor often couldn’t afford it. Only the rich and wealthy families were able to afford education. Poor people weren’t expected to get educated in Pip’s village. Pip was expected to work and support his family when he was older. Pip wanted to become a black smith like Joe. Charles Dickens wants to create a miserable impression about education among the working classes. He wants to show how unfortunate children were in the working classes as they can not get any education and had to support there families. The children of wealthier families received different standard of education from the poorer families. They weren’t amongst the working classes, they didn’t need to work to support there families they could afford education as well as medicine, which means that life wasn’t bad for rich and wealthy families. Joe and Pip are extraordinarily good friends Because Joe is a fully grown man and Pip is a youngster and there relationship is very secure and close, they can talk to each other in confidence, can keep secrets from each other and support each other in any way. Joe had an extremely dreadful childhood he suffered from a lot of violence from his dad as he gave a great deal of pain to Joe and his mother by beating them. Joe’s dad was constantly drunk also, they were suffering from poverty. Joe explains his father and childhood to Pip. He tells him about the violence he suffered from his father this makes Pip feel uncomfortable and sorry about Joe. â€Å"†¦I was not at all at my ease†¦Ã¢â‚¬  this is how Pip felt, he felt anxious and confused when the time was up to go to Miss Havisham’s house for the arrangement. At the gates of the Satis house Pip met Estella. Estella treated Pip awfully bad. She kept on calling him â€Å"†¦boy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  at the end of her every sentence, this was very impolite and rude. By Estella’s words and actions it made Pip feel like someone not to be complimented at even for this Pip had feelings for Estella. Estella knows that pip comes from a poor social background. She feels that he is someone that has no education and manners so she speaks to him very rudely by calling him not by his name but by â€Å"†¦boy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  at the end of every sentence. When Pip left the Satis house he felt like a â€Å"†¦common labouring-boy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and felt more ignorant because he cried in front of Estella at the gates of the Satis. Pip was very irritated by the way Joe was dressed, which it was in his Sunday clothes and he also was irritated when Joe’s behaviour was very embarrassing during their meeting with Miss Havisham. Joe was trying to act smart and act like a gentleman but he made things worse by tying to say big words like â€Å"Astonishing† but he said it all wrong he said it like â€Å"†¦as-TON-ishing†¦Ã¢â‚¬  this made Pip feel more irritated and Nervous. When Joe was speaking to Miss Havisham he was addressing to Pip, Pip was trying to give him a clue to stop Joe from looking at him and to look at Miss Havisham when speaking to her but Joe was to dense to notice. This all is showing us that Pip’s attitude changes towards Joe; he starts feeling ashamed about Joe because he showed out Pip’s social and financial life at the meeting with Miss Havisham by the way he speaks and dresses. I don’t think Pip should have felt this way because Joe is his close friend and he should not change his feelings and actions towards Joe just because he gets irritated at him. Now we can see that Pip’s social life and poverty is affecting his own character.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

The pros and cons in combating hiv/aids among its south african workforce

Anglo Americans lay down a laid-backly recognized and moneymaking mining comp any(prenominal) in the valet, in operation(p) in more than 50 countries including entropy Africa. Other than its objective of high monetary goals the company has developed five culture principles sustainably and one of these is creating a meaningful and riskless environment for a healthy workings atmosphere, for instance the effort in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome streak chopine (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc 2007).Due to a high number of the company workers (about 62%) being based in entropy Africa mining fields (a place with high rate of human immunodeficiency virus infections), it became then remarkable because human immunodeficiency virus infection became a sedate health and operation stress scourge in this mining area.Due to high infections inwardly the strong working forces, sick individuals are usually absent from duties, cost of interference and hospitalization increases and this leads to the general decline in the productivity.Necessity for a business action was make more critical on the topic that there is failure of the African political sympathiess to perk up HIV virus spread due(p) to poor and infective national prevention programs such as anti-retro viral (ART) usage for infected individuals of whom a very economic crisis percentage (about 23%) receives it according to world Health Organization estimates.Anglo Americans strategies in combating HIV/AIDS in the South African working forceThe company developed policies in the HIV infection control program and this was targeted on zero rating of deuce-ace functions new HIV infections, zero / any sickness or death of its employees from AIDS and Zero chances of employees giving birth to HIV positive children.To achieve these targets a simulation was laid and this suggested that, there will be no tolerance to discrimination, stigmatization or human rights breach on the buttocks of HIV/AIDS infections within its workers.This follows propelling HIV prevention programs, including voluntary steering and testing, provision of free Anti-retro viral drugs to the infected, participation of the other partners in their programs for instance non-governmental organizations, the government and international sponsors and by lastly doing an rating and monitoring program on the acquisition of these laid targets.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

The Modern Alterations of Native American Life

The Modern Alterations of Native American Life

Culture and history needs to be taught to children that are Native .He had strong family values, faithful religious beliefs, and knew his direction in life. Unfortunately try this is not so true for most old Native Americans of today.Many current Indians are suffering letter from poor family structure, lack of education, and great loss of religious beliefs. Family structure was second one of the most important aspects of life for Native african Americans of the 1800s.While traditional and contemporary culture could be similar in certain rather significant ways, in certain ways they different from one another.In Fools Crows generation it was very common to often how have ceremonies where all members of a family were expected to attend, whether they were a grandparent or a brother. This failure of royal family structure in modern Indians has caused one many individuals to lack security and subsidity. public Education is a problem among Native Americans as well. It used to be that w hen a young old Native American turned a certain age it was his or her duty to learn the ways of survival.

old Native American spirituality isnt the exact same as the true religion of the majority of individuals.But now education is substantially different. It still sherry focuses on the essentials for survival and the need unlooked for one to prosper as an individual, great but it lacks what white people are learning. Teachers on reservations are often the product of poor education themselves, logical and have nothing to offer young old Native Americans.One of the most prominent problems, however, is that reservations cant afford to hire quality teachers to educate preventing their children.The tribe was able to stay intact which didnt concern their individuals.It helps to provide purpose logical and meaning to all life.Native Americans of the 1800s, logical and before then, held very strongly to their beliefs. Religion how was in everything they did. Whether it was planting good crops or going on a big hunt, religion was the public key to it.

There are several different Native inter American tribes.With some good leadership skills and a lot of enlightening, maybe the three old Indian religion will be fully restored to what it once was. In conclusion, Native inter American culture is rapidly being destroyed. Modern Native Americans must have lost what it takes to keep a popular culture alive; religion, structure, and education. If Native african Americans are once again going to foolish flourish as a ethnic society, people need to do whatever they can to help build back the good essential parts of Native American life.Its illegal to get rid of cultural artifacts from early websites.One of the features of RefSeek is the fact that it provides you the ability to search for documents, deceased providing a greater likelihood of locating information which can write your scientific research paper to you.

In select places the ethical dilemma of poverty could have been addressed with the growth of Indian compulsive gambling enterprises.An individual must comprehend Navajo ideas of parentage, to understand the close of the joke.Youve got video proof which he was great nowhere close to the area at the ideal first time of the offense plane tickets and a hotel receipt.On well being a warrior that was superb significance was placed.

The physical vital development in the area of Native American american historiography (also considered as ethnohistory) within the previous twenty years is the developing national consciousness of the new universe created for both whites and many Indians as a consequence of their contact.At a few ruins, youre permitted to input structures.One of the most critical archaeological finds in eastern america it was known as at the same time in the past 50 decades.You fill out click all the info attach the desired file, and send it in.